Microbiology Independent Research Journal (MIR Journal)

Advanced search

A new safe and effective cold-adapted modified live equine influenza virus vaccine that enables the differentiation infected from vaccinated animals


An analysis of the main advantages and shortcomings of the existing inactivated and live vaccines against the equine influenza viruses is given in this paper. For the first time, the most important information, concerning the development of a new live modified cold-adapted equine influenza virus vaccine based on the A/HK/Otar/6:2/2010 strain is summarized. We discuss a number of unique features of the developed vaccine that have not previously been reported, and compare the new vaccine with the existing equine influenza vaccines. The properties of developed equine vaccine include: long lasting (12 months or more) protective immunity after a single immunization; sterile immunity after double vaccination; cross-protection against the heterologous virus in 12 months after a double vaccination and the differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals.

About the Author

K. Tabynov
The Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems

Kaissar Tabynov

Zhambulskaya oblast, Kordaiskiy rayon, Gvardeisky


1. Cullinane A, Elton D, Mumford J. Equine influenza – surveillance and control. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2010; 4(6), 339–344.

2. Paillot R, Hannant D, Kydd JH, Daly JM. Vaccination against equine influenza: Quid novi? Vaccine 2006; 24(19), 4047-4061.

3. Morley PS, Townsend HG, Bogdan JR, Haines DM. Efficacy of a commercial vaccine for preventing disease caused by influenza virus infection in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 215, 61–66.

4. Mumford JA, Wood J. Establishing an acceptable threshold for equine influenza vaccines. Dev Biol Stand 1992; 79, 137–146.

5. Heldens JGM, Pouwels HGW, van Loon AAWM. Efficacy and duration of immunity of a combined equine influenza and equine herpesvirus vaccine against challenge with an American-like equine influenza virus (A/equi-2/Kentucky/95). Vet J 2004; 167, 150–157.

6. Nelson KM, Schram BR, McGregor MW, Sheoran AS, Olsen CW, Lunn DP. Local and systemic isotypespecific antibody responses to equine influenza virus infection versus conventional vaccination. Vaccine 1998; 16(13), 1306-13.

7. Newton JR, Lakhani KH, Wood JLN, Baker DJ. Risk factors for equine influenza serum antibody titres in young Thoroughbred racehorses given an inactivated vaccine, Prev Vet Med 2000; 46, 129–141.

8. Wilson WD. Equine influenza. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1993; 9(2), 257-82.

9. Townsend HG, Penner SJ, Watts TC, Cook A, Bogdan J, Haines DM, Griffin S, Chambers T, Holland RE, Whitaker-Dowling P, Youngner JS, Sebring RW. Efficacy of a cold-adapted, intranasal, equine influenza vaccine: challenge trials. Equine Vet J 2001; 33(7), 637–43.

10. Chambers TM, Holland RE, Tudor LR, Townsend HG, Cook A, Bogdan J, Lunn DP, Hussey S, WhitakerDowling P, Youngner JS, Sebring RW, Penner SJ, Stiegler GL. A new modified live equine influenza virus vaccine: phenotypic stability, restricted spread and efficacy against heterologous virus challenge. Equine Vet J 2001; 33(7), 630–6.

11. Dowling PW, Youngner JS. Cold-adapted equine influenza viruses. Patent No. US 7,438,919 B2, USA, 2008.

12. Youngner JS, Whitaker-Dowling P, Chambers TM, Rushlow KE, Sebring R. Derivation and characterization of a live attenuated equine influenza vaccine virus. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62(8), 1290-4.

13. Breathnach CC, Rudersdorf R, Lunn DP. Use of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vectors for equine influenza vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2004; 98(3-4), 127-36.

14. Adams AA, Sturgill TL, Breathnach CC, Chambers TM, Siger L, Minke JM, Horohov DW. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of old horses following recombinant canarypox virus vaccination and subsequent challenge infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2011; 139(2-4), 128-40.

15. Minke JM, Toulemonde CE, Coupier H, Guigal PM, Dinic S, Sindle T, Jessett D, Black L, Bublot M, Pardo MC, Audonnet JC. Efficacy of a canarypoxvectored recombinant vaccine expressing the haemagglutinin gene of equine influenza H3N8 virus in the protection of ponies from viral challenge. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68(2), 213–9.

16. Heldens JG, Patel JR, Chanter N, Ten Thij GJ, Gravendijck M, Schijns VE, Langen A, Schetters TP. Veterinary vaccine development from an industrial perspective. Vet J 2008; 178(1), 7–20.

17. Rooney JF, Wohlenberg C, Cremer KJ, Moss B, Notkins AL. Immunization with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D: long-term protection and effect of revaccination. J Virol 1988; 62(5), 1530-4.

18. Kanesa-thasan N, Smucny JJ, Hoke CH, Marks DH, Konishi E, Kurane I, Tang DB, Vaughn DW, Mason PW, Shope RE. Safety and immunogenicity of NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV attenuated recombinant Japanese encephalitis virus-poxvirus vaccines in vaccinianonimmune and vaccinia-immune humans. Vaccine 2000; 19(4-5), 483-91.

19. Breathnach CC, Rudersdorf R, Lunn DP. Use of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vectors for equine influenza vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2004; 98(3-4), 127-36.

20. Lunn DP, Soboll G, Schram BR, Quass J, McGregor MW, Drape RJ, Macklin MD, McCabe DE, Swain WF, Olsen CW. Antibody responses to DNA vaccination of horses using the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Vaccine 1999; 17(18), 2245-58.

21. Soboll G, Nelson KM, Leuthner ES, Clark RJ, Drape R, Macklin MD, Swain WF, Olsen CW, Lunn DP. Mucosal co-administration of cholera toxin and influenza virus hemagglutinin-DNA in ponies generates a local IgA response. Vaccine 2003; 21(21-22), 3081-92.

22. Quinlivan M, Zamarin D, García-Sastre A, Cullinane A, Chambers T, Palese P. Attenuation of equine influenza viruses through truncations of the NS1 protein. J Virol 2005; 79(13), 8431-9.

23. Maeda Y, Hatta M, Takada A, Watanabe T, Goto H, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Live bivalent vaccine for parainfluenza and influenza virus infections. J Virol 2005; 79(11), 6674-9.

24. Karamendin K, Kydyrmanov A, Kasymbekov Y, Khan E, Daulbayeva K, Asanova S, Zhumatov K, Seidalina A, Sayatov M, Fereidouni SR. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007–2012. Arch Virol. 2014, 159, 2321–7. doi: 10.1007/s00705-014-2078-3.

25. OIE Expert Surveillance Panel on Equine Influenza Vaccine Composition, OIE Headquarters, 4 March 2016. Available:

26. Потапчук МВ, Репко ИА, Сергеева МВ, Коротков АВ, Комиссаров АБ, Сандыбаев НТ, Червякова ОВ, Хайруллин БМ, Цыбалова ЛМ. Характеристика реассортантных штаммов вируса гриппа на основе нового донора A/HongKong/1/68/162/35 (H3N2). Вопросы вирусологии 2012; 57(6), 42-6.

27. Chervyakova OV, Strochkov VM, Tailakova ET, Sultankulova KT, Sandybayev NT, Sansyzbay AR, Gorev NE, Sergeeva MV, Potapchuk MV, Repko IA, Tsybalova LM, Kiselev OI. Recombinant Strain A/ HK/Otar/6:2/2010 (H3N8) for development of a live intranasal equine influenza vaccine. J Equine Vet Sci 2014; 34(6), 749–758.

28. Асанжанова НН, Табынов КК, Кыдырбаев ЖК, Рыскельдинова ШЖ, Кожамкулов ЕМ, Инкарбеков ДА. Изучение безвредности и иммуногенности клонов реассортантного штамма A/HK/ Otar/6:2/2010 (H3N8) вируса гриппа на модели лабораторных животных. Биотехнология. Теория и практика 2012; 1, 69-76.

29. Tabynov K, Kydyrbayev Z, Ryskeldinova S, Assanzhanova N, Kozhamkulov Y, Inkarbekov D, Sansyzbay A. The safety and immunogenicity of a novel cold-adapted modified-live equine influenza virus vaccine. Aust Vet J 2014; 92(11), 450-457.

30. Tabynov K, Kydyrbayev Z, Ryskeldinova S, Assanzhanova N, Sansyzbay A. Duration of the protective immune response after prime and booster vaccination of yearlings with a live modified coldadapted viral vaccine against equine influenza. Vaccine 2014; 32(25), 2965-71.

31. Van de Zande S. Prime boost vaccine for the protection of equines against equine influenza. Patent No. US 7,601,502 B2, USA, 2009.

32. Minke JM, Audonnet JC, Jessett DM, Fischer L, Guigal PM, Coupier H, Pardo MC, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Mumford JA. Canarypox as vector for influenza and EHV-1 genes: challenges and rewards, In: 2nd International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, Oxford 2000; 36.

33. Cullinane A, Weld J, Osborne M, Nelly M, McBride C, Walsh C. Field studies on equine influenza vaccination regimes in Thorough-bred foals and yearlings. Vet J 2001; 161(2), 174–185.

34. Heldens JG, Pouwels HG, Derks CG, Van de Zande SM, Hoeijmakers MJ. Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix. Vaccine 2010; 28(43), 6989-96.

35. OIE Terrestrial manual, Chapter 2.5.7. – Equine influenza (Infection with equine influenza virus), May 2016. Available:

36. Daly JM, Newton JR, Mumford JA. Current perspectives on control of equine influenza. Vet Res 2004; 35(4), 411-23.

37. Ozaki H, Sugiura T, Sugita S, Imagawa H, Kida H. Detection of antibodies to the nonstructural protein (NS1) of influenza A virus allows distinction between vaccinated and infected horses. Vet Microbiol 2001; 82(2), 111–119.

38. Табынов КК, Асанжанова НН, Рыскельдинова ШЖ, Кожамкулов ЕМ, Инкарбеков ДА, Кыдырбаев Ж. Комиссионные испытания технологии изготовления, физических и иммунобиологических характеристик новой живой холодоадаптированной вакцины против гриппа лошадей. Биотехнология. Теория и практика 2016; 1, 33-40.


For citations:

Tabynov K. A new safe and effective cold-adapted modified live equine influenza virus vaccine that enables the differentiation infected from vaccinated animals. Microbiology Independent Research Journal (MIR Journal). 2016;3(1):49-55. (In Russ.)

Views: 200

ISSN 2500-2236 (Online)