Pages 1-9 (Eng)
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments of negative-sense RNA that encode up to 18 proteins. During the process of viral replication, positive-sense (+)RNA (cRNA) or messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized. Today, there is only a partial understanding of the function of several secondary structures within vRNA and cRNA promoters, and splice sites in the M and NS genes. The most precise secondary structure of (+)RNA has been determined for the NS segment of influenza A virus.
The influenza A virus NS gene features two regions with a conserved mRNA secondary structure located near splice sites. Here, we compared 4 variants of the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 strain featuring different combinations of secondary structures at the NS segment (+)RNA regions 82-148 and 497-564. We found that RNA structures did not affect viral replication in cell culture. However, one of the viruses demonstrated lower NS1 and NEP expression levels during early stage cell infection as well as reduced pathogenicity in mice compared to other variants. In particular, this virus is characterized by an RNA hairpin in the 82-148 region and a stable hairpin in the 497-564 region.
In recent years, the number of infectious diseases caused by Clostridium difficile in the world has grown with a significant increase in relapses and mortality in patients, particularly among cancer patients in hospitals. An increase in the resistance of Clostridium difficile to first-line drugs, namely metronidazole and vancomycin, has also been observed and that makes the search for new methods of treatment and the prevention of this infection even more urgent. In this review, we analyze the recent data on the methods of the cultivation and isolation of the pure bacterial culture of Clostridium difficile and other anaerobic enteropathogens over the course of enterocolitis treatment with antimicrobial drugs in pediatric patients with oncopathology. Novel approaches to the therapy of this infection are discussed.