Detection and identification of wheat and barley phytopathogens in Russia
received: 2019-12-31 accepted: 2020-02-13 published: 2020-03-03
Grain export is an important branch of the food business in Russia. The countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and South America are importers of Russian grain. Each importing country has its own requirements for the phytosanitary condition of imported products. One important requirement of importers is the absence of pathogens that can cause bacterial diseases of grain crops, such as Pectobacterium rhapontici, Rathayibacter tritici, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Pseudomonas syringae pvs., Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Xanthomonas translucens pvs., Rathayibacter rathayi and Pseudomonas cichorii. Reliable information on the distribution of these bacterial strains in the territory of Russian Federation is limited. Methods for isolation and identification of these bacterial pathogens have not been developed to date, which increases the risk of the spread of phytopathogens and eventually can cause significant economic harm to agriculture.
The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the causative agents of bacterial diseases of wheat and barley. In order to do this, we collected samples of plant material of wheat and barley in Rodionovo-Nesvetaysky, Myasnikovsky, Zernograd, Azov and Martynovsky districts of the Rostov Oblast. Various bacterial strains were isolated from the obtained samples using appropriate culture media. The strains were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed for the 16S ribosomal RNA region (PSF/PSR and 8UA/519B) and SyD1/SyD2 primers selected for the Pseudomonas syringae genome region (GenBank CP047267.1) with subsequent sequencing according to Sanger.
As a result, the following bacterial strains were isolated and identified from wheat and barley samples: Curtobacterium sp., Paenibacillus sp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas azotoformans, P. poae, P. azotoformans, P. hibiscicola, P. fluorescens, Stenotrophomonas sp., P. syringae pv. syringae, P. syringae pv. atrofaciens, Bacillus sp., Erwinia sp., Pantoea sp. and Pantoea agglomerans.
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